• UHMS Staff
  • Volume 10 - Issue 4


Celebrated Icon Dr. Alfred Bove Passes

Dr. Bove gave the Lambertsen Lecture Lung Injury with Diving: Beyond Boyle’s Law as one of the ASM 2015 Keynote Speakers.

It is with great sadness that the UHMS and the diving medical field acknowledge and grieve for the recent loss of Alfred Bove, MD, PhD, who passed away on October 17 at the age of 81. Dr. Bove’s immeasurable contributions to our field, coupled with his generosity, kindness and wisdom make his loss profound. If you ever had the pleasure to speak with him, you couldn’t help but appreciate his humbleness and willingness to provide the benefit of his wisdom to anyone who asked.

A founding member of the American Board of Preventive Medicine UHM Examination Writing Subcommittee, Dr. Bove was responsible for establishing the UHM Board Certification process. During his time as President of the UHMS (1983-1984), he successfully changed the name of our Society from the Undersea Medical Society, to the Undersea and Hyperbaric Medical Society, to better reflect the scope of hyperbaric medicine.

Dr. Bove also initiated the first International Symposium on Undersea and Hyperbaric Physiology and arranged to have the meeting held in Kobe, Japan. This meeting established the foundation for our strong ties with our Japanese colleagues, a relationship that continues to grow and from which our field is all the stronger.

Fred, as he was known, was a Renaissance man in every respect, with a fund of knowledge and logic able to address numerous areas of the field of medicine, and certainly diving medicine. He was the ‘go-to’ person for cardiac issues related to divers, always a source of common-sense advice.

He will be badly missed. Our hearts go out to his wife Sandy, his family, and to the many friends and colleagues who have lost a truly incredible person. His legacy remains, an enduring testament to his wisdom.

More at:

In lieu of flowers, donations may be made to the American College of Cardiology Foundation at: or to Temple University to support the Alfred A. Bove,MD, PhD Lecture within the Heart and Vascular Institute, an annual event created as a tribute to Dr. Bove’s passion for educating and training generations of physicians. If you would like to donate to the latter, you may mail your contributions to Temple Health Institutional Advancement, c/o Katie Beddis, Post Office Box 827651, Philadelphia, PA 19182, or contribute online at:

Downunder Dive Pioneer Dr. Carl Edmonds Passes

Carl had an incisive intellect and accrued an encyclopedic knowledge of diving medicine.

Carl Edmonds, diving medicine pioneer, Foundation President of the South Pacific Underwater Medicine Society and first editor of the SPUMS Journal, has passed away.

He died on Friday, November 1, 2019, at age 83 looking out across the vast Pacific Ocean, an ocean that embraced him during countless dives and an ocean that inspired him to contribute immeasurably over 50 years of dedicated service to diving medicine, safety, and academia.

Carl’s output of publications during his working life was prodigious. He was author or co-author of many other aquatic/diving medical books and book chapters, including Marine Animal Injuries to Man (1984), The Abalone Diver (1987), Dangerous Marine Creatures (1989), and Diving Medicine for Scuba Divers (1992). Many of the classic diving medicine textbooks from the USA contain contributions from Carl Edmonds. His research papers covered many aspects of diving medicine, with topics ranging across nearly all aspects of diving medicine: fitness to dive, pearl and abalone diving, scuba kids, drowning, diving deaths, oxygen and recompression treatment, the science of dive medicine, long-term sequelae of diving, and dive equipment.

Carl’s iconic Diving and Subaquatic Medicine, co-authored with Christopher Lowry and John Pennefather, was self-published in 1976. Self-publication was necessary at the time because medical editors did not see a market for the book. Now in its 5th edition (2016), this authoritative reference is used by dive physicians all over the world. Regarded as a founding father of marine medicine Carl has influenced all contemporary generations of dive physicians.

In collaboration with Bob Thomas and Bart McKenzie, Carl published a subsequent book titled Diving Medicine for SCUBA Divers to ensure that the educational aspects of diving and subaquatic medicine became accessible to a wider audience. A revised online edition with John Pennefather has been made available for free download.

An obituary about Carl Edmonds is incomplete without describing his founding role in establishing the SPUMS, and the Society’s Journal. During his tenure at the Royal Australian Navy School of Underwater Medicine, informal discussions between Carl and his colleagues led to the creation of a medical society with a focus on matters significant to professional and recreational divers. SPUMS was founded in the wardroom of HMAS Penguin on Monday, May 3, 1971. Carl was elected as Founding President of SPUMS and held the position until 1976. The first SPUMS newsletter was produced by Carl as editor in May 1972, a hand-typed, 18-page document.

Later that year, Carl heralded the first Annual Scientific Meeting in 1972. The theme was “Diving Safety - What Not to Do!” Carl’s newsletter evolved into the highly respected and leading scientific journal, Diving and Hyperbaric Medicine. All divers today benefit from his dedication to improving the safety of the sport and occupation that he so loved.

Carl accumulated an extensive library of diving medical and marine texts. In June 2014 he arranged for his entire library to be transported to the Royal Hobart Hospital hyperbaric facility and is accessible for future generations.

Carl Edmonds’ contributions to the field of dive medicine were recognized by SPUMS in 1989 when he was awarded life membership. He has had numerous other awards during his career. including the Order of Australia Medal in 2008 in recognition of his service to diving and hyperbaric medicine as a practitioner, researcher, educator, and the advancement of dive safety.

His most recent research focus was scuba divers’ pulmonary edema, and he continued to work on several papers right to his death. He is survived by wife Cynthia, his children, Scott, Kirsten, Mark, Briony, and five granddaughters.

Carl’s life, ideas, literary papers, and books will continue to inspire, challenge and guide divers and diving doctors for many more generations to come. Carl will be sadly missed, but his influence lives on.

Joel Hissink, SPUMS Webmaster, formerly Officer-in-Charge SUMU, HMAS Penguin

David Smart, SPUMS President

Douglas Falconer, SPUMS Secretary, Senior Medical Advisor Diving Medicine, SUMU, HMAS Penguin

John Pennefather, formerly SUMU Scientific Officer, HMAS Penguin

Renowned Diving Doc Dr. Fiona Sharp Passes

The diving medical community recently lost Dr. Fiona Sharp. The anesthesiologist from Perth, Australia, died on October 17 while CCR diving off Bonaire – dying on the same day as Dr. Fred Bove.

A consummate attendee at diving medical meetings and workshops, and a diving medicine consultant for DAN Southeast Asia Pacific, Fiona was universally adored.

Her loss leaves a sizable void in the social and clinical fabric of our field. A consummate attendee at UHMS Annual Meetings, she has also been characterized by the EUBS executive committee as their most faithful Australian member, as well as a Member at Large from 2011-2014.

Fiona’s joyful, witty, and passionate personality enriched every meeting she attended. Her honesty, intelligence and lack of pretense were laudable attributes that made her contributions of great value and her company universally sought.

Her loss has caused a surge of remembrance on social media. If you take some time, you will get a measure of the person Fiona was, and how missed she will be.

Read more: Obituaries

The “What” and “How” of Certification Exams

  • Jayesh B. Shah, MD, CWSP, FAPWCA, FACCWS, Caroline E. Fife, MD, CWSP, FAAFP, FUHM, and Paul Sheffield, PhD, CAsP, CHT, FASMA, FUHMP
  • Volume 10 - Issue 4

The “What” and “How” of Certification Exams

The following is an excerpt from Wound Care Certification Study Guide 2nd Edition, editors Jayesh B. Shah, Paul J. Sheffield, and Caroline E. Fife, explaining the “Whats” and “Hows” of wound care certification exams.

This chapter is designed to help you determine which certification exam best fits your situation and provides ten “pearls” to help pass the certification exam.

I. Wound care certification (certificate of added qualification)

  1. Physicians should be aware that neither the American Board of Medical Specialties (ABMS) nor its osteopathic counterpart, the Bureau of Osteopathic Specialists (BOS), recognizes wound care as a specialty or subspecialty; thus, none of the certification options can be considered an actual board certification. Wound care certification is perhaps better described as a certificate of added qualification. Certification identifies a standard of knowledge essential for developing a comprehensive wound management background; advances cooperation and resource exchange among the various disciplines and organizations involved in treatment of patients with chronic wounds; encourages continued professional growth and development of individuals and the field of wound management; and establishes a code of ethics, responsibility, and high professional standards by all certified individuals.
  2. The wound care certification testing agencies and their corresponding certifications listed in this chapter reflect a compilation of information about the exams available to the authors at the time of this writing. It is highly recommend that all prospective applicants do their own research at the individual certification exam websites, which are provided in the following table. In addition to the degree/license requirement, there is an application fee for each of the exams. Some exams require annual maintenance fees and/or have practice requirements. Prospective candidates are advised to contact the individual organizations for further details.
  3. Table 1.1 summarizes the credentials in wound care that are currently available.

Table 1.1: Wound care credentials

II. Hyperbaric medicine certification (board certification and certificate of added qualification, or CAQ)

  1. Increasing numbers of wound care practices are adding hyperbaric oxygen therapy as a treatment option for difficult wounds. A list of accepted indications for hyperbaric oxygen is available on the Undersea and Hyperbaric Medical Society (UHMS) website at
  2. Wound care specialists are often asked to supervise HBOT treatments. Many Medicare Administrative Carriers (MACs) and private payers have begun to specify the physician training required for reimbursement of physician-supervised HBOT. Physicians are encouraged to read their Local Carrier Determinations (LCDs) as requirements vary, though most require ACLS certification and at least a recognized 40-hour introductory course. Some payers require that a minimum number of treatments or hours of HBOT be precepted by a credentialed physician and/or that the physician obtains a CAQ in hyperbaric medicine to be reimbursed for the supervision of HBOT.
  3. The American Board of Medical Specialties (ABMS) recognizes subspecialty board certification in undersea and hyperbaric medicine (UHM) that is offered by both the American Board of Preventive Medicine (ABPM) and the American Board of Emergency Medicine (ABEM). UHM subspecialty board certification is now only possible for physicians who complete a one-year Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) approved fellowship in UHM and thus is unlikely to be an option for most physicians.
  4. Physician CAQs in hyperbaric medicine are available from the UHMS, the American Osteopathic Board of Preventive Medicine (AOBPM), and the American Board of Wound Healing (ABWH).
  5. Hyperbaric nurse and hyperbaric technologist certification is available from the National Board of Diving and Hyperbaric Technology (NBDHMT). The American Board of Wound Healing (ABWH) offers a certified hyperbaric and wound specialist certificate.
  6. Table 1.2 summarizes the credentials in hyperbaric medicine that are currently available.

Table 1.2: Hyperbaric credentials

III. Test-taking strategies

Test pass rates vary, but about 15-20% of applicants fail their certification exam. There are three important factors that affect one’s test performance: studying the right material, managing stress/test anxiety, and practical experience. Studying the reference materials on which the exam is based is the most important factor. The certification agencies want to know you understand the “textbook answer” to their questions. Managing test anxiety is the second most important factor. Even the most intelligent and studious individuals may do poorly on exams if they are overwhelmed by test anxiety. The best way to overcome test anxiety is to practice taking tests. Practice exams, like the one found in Chapter 33, are your best weapon against test anxiety. Practical experience, while a prerequisite to some wound care certifications, may actually impair test performance. It may be counterintuitive to think your experience can harm you, but it is important to recognize that the exam is not based on the wound care knowledge that has proven successful for you, unless that knowledge also happens to be the textbook answer to the question at hand. It is imperative you know the textbook answers, not the common practice in your facility.

The following is a list of suggestions for proper study techniques and general preparation considerations.

  1. At least two months before the exam:
    1. Carefully follow all the test registration procedures.
    2. Know the test instructions, duration, topics, question types, and number of questions.
    3. Familiarize yourself with the testing facility protocol. Do they allow any personal effects, e.g., phones, calculators, ear plugs into the testing environment? If not, will they provide you with a location to store these items? What happens if you have to go to the bathroom in the middle of the test?
    4. Set up a flexible study schedule and stick to it.
    5. Study during the time of day you are most alert, relaxed, and stress free. Most test applicants work, so no more than one or two hours a day should be set aside for studying.
    6. Focus on your weakest knowledge base. Do not study the material you are familiar with; study the topics you don’t know or don’t frequently use.
    7. Find a study partner for reviewing and clarifying questions.
    8. Practice, practice, practice.
  2. The day before the exam:
    1. Get a good night’s sleep. Do not try to cram the night before the test.
    2. Know the exact physical location of the testing site. Drive the route to the site prior to the test day.
    3. Keep your cool—play with your kids or go out for an evening walk.
    4. Select and set aside what you need to take to the testing center.
  3. The day of the exam:
    1. Consider taking ear plugs; the testing center could be noisy.
    2. Eat a well-balanced meal, but don’t overeat.
    3. Wear comfortable, loose-fitting, layered clothing; the examination room may be cold or hot.
    4. Take along the required documents to the testing center. This may include forms of identification or a document showing your reservation.
    5. Arrive early, be prepared to wait, and be patient.
    6. Stay positive.
  4. Ten “pearls” to ace the test:
    1. Read the entire question carefully. Scan all the answers, and read the question again. Make sure that you did not misread the question.
    2. Once you have selected your answer, always go back and check it against the question. Make sure your choice answers the question— all answers may be correct statements, but the correct choice is the one that directly answers the question.
    3. Do not disregard any information in the question. Information in the question is there for a reason; it is not there to throw you off.
    4. If you only know the answer to part of the question, the best action is to eliminate the choices you know to be incorrect and make a best educated guess from the remaining answers.
    5. If you’ve read the question and don’t know the answer, skip over the question and return to it later, if you have that option. Reading the remainder of the test may jog your memory or allow the answer to pop into your head when you aren’t stressing over it. If skipping the question is not an option, as with some electronic tests, don’t waste time on it. Pick an answer and move on to the next question.
    6. Don’t read too much into the question. Test writers are not writing questions to throw you off. Be practical and understand that the question is there to test a specific objective. Try to imagine what the test writer had in mind and was actually trying to ask. Don’t overcomplicate the problem by creating theoretical relationships or explanations that will warp time or space. These are normal problems rooted in reality. The applicable relationship or explanation may not be readily apparent, and you may have to figure it out. Use common sense to interpret anything that isn’t clear.
    7. Avoid answer choices that have definitive words like “exactly,” “always,” and “never.” These extreme statements do not leave room for exception. In medicine, almost everything has an exception. Avoid any answer choices with slang.
    8. Time management is crucial: don’t spend too much time on any one question. Pace yourself and check the clock every 30 minutes to make sure that you are on target with your time.
    9. Don’t panic: if you don’t know the answer to a question, it is not the end of the world. You do not have to know all the answers to pass the test.
    10. Finally:
      1. Prepare early—do not procrastinate!
      2. Study multiple books.
      3. Find a good source of practice tests and try to simulate the exam three weeks before the test.
      4. Concentrate on your weakest areas.
      5. About 80-85% of the test-takers pass their exam. You are more likely to pass than to fail.

IV. Wound care resources

  1. Krasner DL, Rodeheaver GT, Sibbald RG. Chronic Wound Care: A Clinical Sourcebook for Healthcare Professionals. 4th ed. Wayne: HMP Communications; 2007.
  2. Armstrong D, Lavery L, editors. Clinical Care of the Diabetic Foot. Alexandria: American Diabetes Association; 2005.
  3. Hess C. Clinical Guide: Skin and Wound Care. 5th ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2004.
  4. Veves A, Giurini JM, LoGerfo FW, editors. The Diabetic Foot. 2nd ed. Totowa: Humana Press; 2006.
  5. Joseph WS. Handbook of Lower Extremity Infections. 2nd ed. New York: Churchill Livingstone; 2002.
  6. Campbell DR, Kozak GP, Frykberg RG. Management of Diabetic Foot Problems. 2nd ed. Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders Company; 1995.
  7. Baranoski S, Ayello E. Wound Care Essentials: Practice Principles. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2003.
  8. Baranoski S, Ayello E. Wound Care Essentials: Practice Principles. 2nd ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2008.
  9. Falabella A, Kirsner R, editors. Wound Healing. New York: Informa Healthcare; 2005.
  10. Sheffield PJ, Fife CE, Smith APS, editors. Wound Care Practice. North Palm Beach: Best Publishing Company; 2004.
  11. Sheffield PJ, Fife CE, editors. Wound Care Practice. 2nd ed. North Palm Beach: Best Publishing Company; 2007.
  12. Masturzo A, Beltz WR, Cook R, et al. Wound care certification: the grin without a cat. Wound Healing Society Education Committee Chair Commentary. Wound Rep Reg. 2013; 21:494-7.
  13. American Board of Wound Management (CWS) Exam.
  14. American Board of Wound Management (CWCA) Exam.
  15. American Board of Wound Management (CWSP) Exam.
  16. American Board of Wound Management Foundation CWCA, CWS, CWSP practice exams (registration fee is required):
  17. Certified Wound and Ostomy Care Nurse (CWOCN) Exam.
  18. WOCNCB Examination Handbook.
  19. Council for Medical Education & Testing (CMET) Physicians Wound Care Certification Exam:
  20. National Alliance of Wound Care and Ostomy (NAWCO) Wound Care Certified (WCC) Exam:

V. Hyperbaric resources

  1. Kindwall EP, Whelan HT. Hyperbaric Medicine Practice. 3rd ed. North Palm Beach: Best Publishing Company; 2008.
  2. Kindwall EP, Niezgoda JA. Hyperbaric Medicine Procedure: The Kindwall HBO Handbook. 9th ed. Aurora Health Care; 2006. American College of Hyperbaric Medicine (
  3. Larson-Lohr V, Norvell H, Josefsen L, Wilcox J, editors. Hyperbaric Nursing and Wound Care. North Palm Beach: Best Publishing Company; 2011.
  4. Neuman TS, Thom SR. Physiology and Medicine of Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy. Philadelphia: Saunders Elsevier; 2008.
  5. Sheffield DA, Sheffield RB. CHT and CHRN Certification Exam Review Course. 2nd ed. San Antonio: International ATMO; 2013.
  6. Workman WT, editor. Hyperbaric Facility Safety: A Practical Guide. North Palm Beach: Best Publishing Company; 2000.

Wound Care

Read more: The “What” and “How” of Certification Exams

The American Board of Preventive Medicine Announces Expanded Eligibility Requirements for Its Three Subspecialties

  • Compiled by Renée Duncan
  • Volume 10 - Issue 4

The American Board of Preventive Medicine Announces Expanded Eligibility Requirements for Its Three Subspecialties

The American Board of Preventive Medicine (ABPM) has announced the formal recognition of American Osteopathic Association (AOA) board certification as an acceptable primary certification required for eligibility for certification in three ABPM subspecialties.

This time-limited change aligns with the establishment of a single accreditation system in graduate medical education. The change will allow AOA board certification to serve as the primary credential to obtain certification in select subspecialties.

Beginning with the ABPM 2020 Examination Cycle, AOA board certification will be recognized as an acceptable primary certificate for physicians seeking subspecialty certification in Addiction Medicine, Clinical Informatics and Undersea & Hyperbaric Medicine from ABPM.

To be eligible to participate in this program and take the ABPM sub-specialty certification examination, AOA board-certified physicians must successfully complete an Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) accredited fellowship in the relevant subspecialty, as well as meet all other current ABPM requirements for that subspecialty.

“This expanded eligibility is not only consistent with the pending completion of the transition to a single accreditation system but, more importantly, is the product of the ABPM Board of Directors thoughtful consideration of a request it received from the AOA,” said ABPM’s Board Chair, Hernando “Joe” Ortega, Jr, MD, MPH. “Our goal is to recognize and benefit those talented and well-qualified osteopathic physicians who possess AOA board certification, have successfully completed an ACGME-accredited fellowship, and have otherwise met the rigorous training required for ABPM subspecialty certification.”

ABPM’s Practice Pathways for Addiction Medicine and Clinical Informatics certification requirements will remain the same. In addition, osteopathic physicians who have never obtained AOA board certification or, who at one time held AOA board certification but have not maintained it at the time of application for ABPM subspecialty certification, will not be eligible to take the corresponding examination under the new criteria.

“Our establishment of this time-limited pathway for ACGME-trained fellows allows AOA board-certified physicians an opportunity to obtain subspecialty certification while the single system dynamics are completed,” noted Dr. Ortega. “Most importantly, we are able to expand patient access to treatment in these specialties – most notably Addiction Medicine.”

This expanded eligibility becomes effective as of January 1, 2020, and will continue in effect until the transition to a single accreditation system is complete.

To become certified in a specialty or subspecialty of the ABPM, see the ABPM website at www.theabpm.orgor contact ABPM at This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it..

Chicago, IL, November 16, 2019

Note: This announcement is an update to the original dated October 3, 2019, which referenced the announcement as being made jointly by the American Board of Preventive Medicine and the American Osteopathic Association.

About ABPM: The ABPM is a Member Board of the American Board of Medical Specialties (ABMS). Founded in 1948, ABPM works with the ABMS in the development of standards for the ongoing assessment and certification of more than 12,000 physicians certified by the ABPM in the Specialties of Aerospace Medicine, Occupational Medicine, and Public Health and General Preventive Medicine, and in the Subspecialties of Addiction Medicine, Clinical Informatics, Medical Toxicology and Undersea and Hyperbaric Medicine.

Hyperbaric Medicine

Read more: The American Board of Preventive Medicine Announces Expanded Eligibility Requirements for Its...

  • 1
  • 2

Contact Us

Best Publishing Company
631 US Highway 1, Suite 307
North Palm Beach, FL 33408

This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.



Copyright © 2018 Best Publishing Company, a company of WCHMedia Group, Inc | All rights reserved
Find more information at